States with more punitive criminal justice systems are likely to have higher than average rates of entry into foster care and greater use of institutional placement. Foster care entry rates in such states average 4.9 per 1,000 children, compared to a simulated national average of 4.1 per 1,000. Institutional placement rates average 64.9 per 1,000 children entering foster care, compared to a simulated national average of 55.4 per 1,000 children in foster care.
“More punitive” is defined in terms of greater than the national average for three criminal justice system indicators: incarcerations . . .