Social isolation has been linked to a higher risk of death. Compared with the least isolated, the most socially isolated black men and women had a more than two-fold higher risk of death from any cause, and white men had a 60% greater risk of death, and white women had an 84% greater risk of death. In the study, social isolation was defined as "a measure of an individual’s (limited) social contact and networks." These findings were reported in "Social Isolation and Mortality in US Black and White Men and Women" by Kassandra I. Alcaraz, Katherine S. Eddens . . .