Research has determined that public schools misreport and underreport the use of restraint and seclusion, which the Department of Education said should not be used as discipline or punishment. Of school districts reporting incidents of restraint and seclusion in the U.S. Department of Education’s (DOE’s) biennial Civil Rights Data Collection for the 2015 to 2016 school year, 70% of nearly 17,000 school districts in the U.S. reported zero incidents of restraint and seclusion; however it has been determined that incidents are underreported. The DOE broadly defines restraint as restricting a student’s ability to freely . . .