Overall consumer out-of-pocket (OOP) for hospital services rose 12% during 2018 across inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department services. Average OOP costs rose from $1,813 in the fourth quarter of 2017 to about $2,030 in the fourth quarter of 2018. The share of consumers with average per-visit OOP costs above $501 rose from 51% in 2017 to 64% in 2018. These findings were reported by TransUnion Healthcare in a presentation given at the 2019 Healthcare Financial Management Association Annual Conference, and covered in TransUnion Healthcare's "Out-of-Pocket Costs Rising Even as Patients Transition to . . .