On October 7, 2015, the federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) announced the launch of 13 new condition-specific accountable care organizations (ACOs) focused on end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The new ACOs, called ESRD Seamless Care Organizations (ESCOs), are operated by DaVita; Dialysis Clinic, Inc. (DCI); Fresenius; and Rogosin Institute, which are participating in the Comprehensive ESRD Care Model. The ESCOs will test new payment and service delivery options for ESRD beneficiaries in fee-for-service Medicaid who are not already aligned with any other ACO. The Medicare Innovation Center released a request for applications to participate . . .