Federal mandatory spending for means-tested safety net programs is estimated to increase approximately 57.1% by 2028. Federal mandatory spending for means-tested programs and tax credits that provide cash payments or other assistance to people with relatively low income or few assets is estimated at $700 billion ($0.7 trillion) in 2018. Among the mandatory programs, the largest means-tested ones are Medicaid, the earned income and child tax credits (which are refundable), the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Over the next decade, these program costs are slated to rise by 4.4 . . .