In 2017, about 9% of the $3.9 trillion federal budget was spent on children younger than 19. This spending, which totaled $375 billion, included $301 billion on federal programs, and $74 billion for refundable tax credits. The federal programs benefiting children include Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), early education and care, education and special education, social services, housing, training, and child nutrition programs. If an additional $106 billion in tax reductions for families with children are included, total federal expenditures benefiting children totaled $481 billion. The $301 billion spending on federal programs benefiting children included the . . .