On October 18, 2018, the federal Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which was considering an appeal of the 2015 district court ruling on the Texas child welfare class-action lawsuit M.D. v. Texas, upheld sections of the ruling that ordered the state to reduce caseloads of child protective services (CPS) workers and better monitor foster care provider organizations. The appeals court ruling upheld the district court conclusion that the Texas child welfare system was deliberately indifferent to the risk of harm that the system caused to children in foster care. The appeals court ruling struck down some . . .